How NASA’s MOXIE Extracted Oxygen on the Red Planet
NASA’s MOXIE (Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment) is a groundbreaking technology demonstration that took place on Mars as part of the Mars 2020 mission, which includes the Perseverance rover. MOXIE’s primary goal is to produce oxygen from the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Martian atmosphere, which is composed of about 95% CO2. This technology is vital for future human missions to Mars, as it can provide astronauts with breathable air and serve as a source of oxygen for rocket propulsion.
Purpose of MOXIE:
- MOXIE’s primary objective is to demonstrate a process called “solid oxide electrolysis” to generate oxygen from the Martian atmosphere.
- This technology aims to prove that it’s possible to produce oxygen on Mars, which is essential for sustaining human life and for propellant production for the return journey to Earth.
When and Where MOXIE Operated:
- MOXIE is part of NASA’s Mars 2020 mission, which landed the Perseverance rover on Mars on February 18, 2021.
- MOXIE began its operations shortly after Perseverance’s landing and has been conducting experiments since then.
How MOXIE Works:
Video Source: Reuters Youtube channel
Inlet and Collection:
- MOXIE is equipped with a special inlet system that allows it to draw in Martian air, which is primarily composed of carbon dioxide (CO2).
- The inlet system filters out dust and other contaminants to ensure the purity of the collected Martian air.
Solid Oxide Electrolysis:
- The heart of MOXIE’s oxygen production process lies in a technology called “solid oxide electrolysis.”
- Inside MOXIE, the collected Martian air (CO2) is passed through a ceramic tube known as a solid oxide electrolysis cell.
- This cell is made of a high-temperature ceramic material, which can withstand the extreme conditions on Mars, including the low temperatures and low atmospheric pressure.
High Temperature Operation:
- MOXIE operates at extremely high temperatures, typically around 800 degrees Celsius (1,472 degrees Fahrenheit).
- This high temperature is necessary to facilitate the chemical reaction required for oxygen extraction.
- Within the solid oxide electrolysis cell, the CO2 molecules from the Martian air are subjected to a chemical reaction.
- The solid oxide electrolyte in the cell acts as a conductor for oxygen ions. At the high operating temperature, the ceramic becomes conductive to oxygen ions but not to electrons.
- This allows the following reaction to take place:
- 2CO2 → 2CO + O2
- In this reaction, carbon dioxide (CO2) is split into carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2). The oxygen ions travel through the ceramic electrolyte while the electrons flow outside the cell.
- The oxygen ions migrate through the solid oxide electrolyte toward the anode (positively charged electrode) of the cell.
- At the anode, the oxygen ions combine to form molecular oxygen (O2), which is then released into a storage chamber within MOXIE.
Carbon Monoxide Venting:
- Simultaneously, carbon monoxide (CO), the other product of the CO2 splitting reaction, is also produced.
- MOXIE vents the carbon monoxide into the Martian atmosphere. It’s important to remove the CO since it is not suitable for human breathing and can be harmful.
Oxygen Collection and Storage:
- The oxygen generated during this process is collected and stored in MOXIE’s storage chamber.
- It is kept separate from the Martian atmosphere and any remaining carbon monoxide.
Data Collection and Monitoring:
- Throughout the process, MOXIE’s sensors and instruments continuously monitor various parameters, such as temperature, pressure, and the efficiency of oxygen production.
- This data is transmitted back to Earth for analysis and to ensure the proper functioning of MOXIE.
This detailed process showcases the complexity and ingenuity behind MOXIE’s mission to produce oxygen on Mars. It’s a crucial step in enabling human exploration and potential colonization of the Red Planet, as it reduces the need to transport oxygen from Earth, making future missions more sustainable and feasible. The successful operation of MOXIE represents a significant achievement in space science and engineering.
Testing and Scaling:
- MOXIE is a scaled-down version of a larger oxygen production system that would be required for future human missions.
- It serves as a proof-of-concept, demonstrating that the technology can work in the harsh Martian environment.
- The data and experience gained from MOXIE will inform the design of larger, more efficient oxygen production systems for future missions.
Importance for Future Missions:
- Producing oxygen on Mars has several critical applications for future human missions:
- Providing breathable air for astronauts.
- Creating oxygen for rocket propulsion to enable a return journey to Earth.
- Reducing the need to transport oxygen from Earth, which is heavy and costly.
- MOXIE’s success is a significant step towards making Mars exploration and potential colonization more feasible.
- MOXIE’s operations and findings are valuable for educational purposes, as they demonstrate real-world scientific and engineering challenges.
- It offers students and teachers an opportunity to learn about the complexities of space exploration and the importance of resource utilization in space.
NASA’s MOXIE experiment on Mars is a pioneering demonstration of oxygen production technology on another planet. It serves as a critical step toward enabling future human missions to Mars by providing essential oxygen for astronauts and fuel. The successful operation of MOXIE has significant implications for space exploration and colonization, making it an exciting subject of study for students, teachers, and space enthusiasts alike.